Fantasy: Fantasy is also closely related with fancy. Suspense refers to the anxious anticipation that readers or audience experience with respect to the future course of events, or what will happen to the characters in the narrative. Such poems are also called bucolics. editions, normally signed by the artist in pencil, and numbered as say This is understandable, given that the first emblem book, the Emblemata of Andrea Alciato, was first issued in an unauthorized edition in which the woodcuts were chosen by the printer without any input from the author, who had circulated the texts in unillustrated manuscript form. In Hinduism, for example, epiphany might refer to the realization of Arjuna that Krishna (a God serving as his charioteer in the "Bhagavad Gita") is indeed representing the universe. Fancy and Imagination: Fancy and imagination are two very closely connected literary terms in literature. The aim of suspense is to maintain the interest of readers throughout its course. Duple Meter/Duple Rhythm: Duple meter refers to a poetry that has one meter in each line and two syllables in every metrical foot. Melodrama: Melodrama is applied to plays where dialogs were accompanied by music, to emphasize on certain crucial scenes. The term, which means 'little epic', came in use in the nineteenth century. Literary Ballad: Literary ballad is referred to the written form of ballad song. Declined Language: A declined language is one in which declensions or inflections are used to give more meaning to words. In literature, the word is associated with simplicity and denotes a retreat from the complexities of life. Linking it to the monologue which forms Eliot's poem adds a comment and a dimension to Prufrock's confession. Deism: A religious movement that was popular throughout late seventeenth century up to the late eighteenth century that professed a rational rather than faith-based approach to understanding religion and God. in a few, if the gods favor you, days, Tristram Shandy did not last.". A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds in two or more words and is In case an author provides little characterization of a static character, such a character is called a flat character. Subplot: A subplot is a minor secondary plot that runs simultaneously with the main plot and is auxiliary to it. For example, this excerpt from the Rhetorica ad Herennium lists several faults: A brief overview of what happened literallyâ not figuratively, The structuring of the literature (e.g. Geoffrey Chaucer's The Miller's Prologue and Tale became a vivid satire on these collections and the abuse they found wherever they were just brought into monotonous litanies. The epic form describes both a type of written drama and a methodological approach to the production of plays: "Its qualities of clear description and reporting and its use of choruses and projections as a means of commentary earned it the name 'epic'." Caricature can be insulting or complimentary. Cardinal Virtues: As opposed to the three Christian or Spiritual values of faith, hope, and love, the four Cardinal values are prudence, temperance, justice, and fortitude. Enlightenment: An intellectual movement that developed in the seventeenth century in western Europe and lasted till the nineteenth century. Each regular unit is called a foot. Linguistics: Linguistics is an area where language is studied in a scientific manner. During the Elizabethan Age, chorus referred to a single person who the author used, to express a commentary on the play. Later, prose was substituted by verse, and in place of Latin, came other vernacular languages. It disapproved superstitions, untested beliefs, and barbarism of the medieval ages to embrace the artistic excellence of the Greco-Roman world. Comedy flourished more than tragedy with the introduction of ‘Comedy of Manners’ during this Period. Another example of anachronism is found in the costumes of Elizabethan plays. In dramatic irony, though the character does not understand the cause of the situations that he is experiencing, the reader or the audience knows perfectly why certain situations have taken place. In contrast to an entr'acte, an interquel utilizes the same kind of resources and magnitude as the parts it joins. Glossary of Common Literary Terms Allegory: an allegory is a narrative in which the characters often stand for abstract concepts. Poetry: A genre which is characterized by the use of rhythm and patterns like meter, rhyme, figures of speech, etc. As per Freytag’s pyramid, a play or drama is divided into 5 parts. The conflict can also be internal, that is the protagonist struggling with psychological tendencies. Important Henry Bech, one of his fictitious characters. The theory of evidence is a field wrought with dispute. A coda is a passage that marks the end of a piece of music. free glossaries at TranslationDirectory.com, Find However, paradoxically, the character comes to be ennobled by his rejection of virtues. This style was first introduced in 1970s by Hunter S. Thompson. Plot: The effect of the structure and relationship of the actions, events, and characters in a fictional work. The literary term is a unit, but, to measure and describe the underlying rhythm of the poem. Answer. It has the same characters. Sign up to receive the latest and greatest articles from our site automatically each week (give or take)...right to your inbox. An episode is a part of a dramatic work such as a serial television or radio program. Plagiarism: The intellectual theft of an artistic or literary work, and reproduction of the whole, part or theme of the work as one’s own. Originally entr'actes resulted from stage curtains being closed for set or costume changes: to fill time as not to halt the dramatic action, to make a transition from the mood of one act to the next, or to prevent the public from becoming restless. The epigraphs to the preamble of Georges Perec's Life: A User's Manual (La Vie mode d'emploi) and to the book as a whole warn the reader that tricks are going to be played and that all will not be what it seems. Besides its use in writing about history, especially in historical chronicles, it is used in fiction, for ‘hot news’, and in everyday conversation. Thus the books are closely related to the personal symbolic picture-text combinations called personal devices, known in Italy as imprese and in France as devises. Gallows Humor: Gallows humor is used to express a serious, frightening, or painful subject matter in a humorous or satirical manner. New Comedy: Comedy from Greece that developed after 300 BCE, which focused on romantic angles, wit, and dramatic twists. Edwardian Period: The time between 1901 to 1910 during which, King Edward VII reigned United Kingdom. It is a form of lyric poetry. DoppelgÃ¤nger was considered as a bad omen, and was popularly used by Fyodor Dostoevski and E. T. A. Hoffman in their works. The epigraph to Eliot's Gerontion is a quotation from Shakespeare's Measure for Measure. Hence they form a metrically incomplete line. Like an interquel, an entr'acte can take the action from one part of a large-scale drama to the next by completing the missing links. Symbols help in conveying complex ideas without going into painstakingly elaborate descriptions. This is also known as a dream vision. Thomas Lodge, Christopher Marlowe, Robert Greene, Thomas Lodge, John Lyly, etc., are some of the known university wits. The etymology of the German word, Verwandlungsmusik refers to its original function â literally, "change music". Flashback: Flashback is remembering or reviewing past events. For example the word ‘knight’ that originally meant servant came to be used for ‘servants of the kings’ at a later stage through amelioration of the word. They were in conflict with the supporters of the Parliament who were known as the Roundheads. free dictionaries at TranslationDirectory.com, Subscribe Paraphrase: A technique in which a writer, rewrites in one’s own words, a part or the whole of a literary work. For the realists, truth and accuracy became the tools of perfection. An epitaph may be in verse; poets have been known to compose their own epitaphs prior to their death, as W.B. For instead of saying she is a good singer, with the use of litotes you can say, she is not a bad singer at all. The rallying cry of this movement was art for art’s sake. For example, Albert Einstein was struck as a young child by being given a compass, and realizing that some unseen force in space was making it move. Zeitgeist: Zeitgeist is a German word which means ‘the spirit of the times’. It sometimes also has elements of cabaret, circus, revue, variety, vaudeville and mime. Eye rhyme, also called visual rhyme and sight rhyme, is a similarity in spelling between words that are pronounced differently and hence, not an auditory rhyme. Glossary of Literary Terms Mr. Wheeler | 2 Aside: A line spoken by an actor to the audience but not intended for others on stage. A good example is the open ended conclusion to Hawthorne’s “Young Goodman Brown.”. Imagism: Imagism is a movement started during the 20th century, against Gregorian poetry which was based on emotion and sentimentality. Allusion A subplot involves the deuteragonist or any character other than the protagonist or the antagonist. Tragicomedy: Tragicomedy is the literary term for a work of fiction that blends elements like standard characters, subject matter, and plot-forms of both tragedy and comedy. A symbol substitutes one thing for another, in a more concrete fashion: Emblem books are a category of illustrated book printed in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries, typically containing a number of emblematic images with explanatory text. Its opposite is enjambment, where the sense runs on into the next line. For example, in this sentence Glistens the dew upon the morning grass., the verb comes before the subject-noun. Top Answer. of simile in their writings. The most famous include Louis XIV of France's sun, the salamander of Francis I of France, the boar of Richard III of England and the armillary sphere of Manuel I of Portugal. Besides the rules of English grammar there are numerous other devices that make expression so effortless. Octameter: It refers to the verse in poetry that has each line in eight metric feet. This chorus would often speak the prologue, epilogue, and an introduction to each act in the play. It is a deliberate action of a writer with the aim of achieving a comic or satiric effect. the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_literary_terms, Become a member of TranslationDirectory.com at just eponymously. When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child. This metrical foot can be seen in majority of the English poems, and is thus said to be the most common. Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Lament: Lament is a type of poem or song through which grief is expressed. my heart)i am never without it(anywhere Emphasis was laid more on re-creating local color and domestic detail. Olfactory Imagery: The mental image or feeling of scent that a reader experiences while reading a passage of literature. It is an example of rhetoric scheme. Anti-romance: Anti-romance is a story which has an apathetic and self-doubting protagonist or the antihero, who fails in his objectives. The word "Homeric" In the eighteenth century, digression became a part of satirical works, fine examples of which are A Tale of Tub by Jonathan Swift and Tristram Shandy by Laurence Sterne. According to Boethius who founded the philosophy, these events have a higher beneficial purpose that would elude the comprehension of human beings, as long as they are bound with the laws of the physical universe. The literary term includes the actual facts and the writing is in the first person point of view. Hyperbole: Hyperbole is a part of speech that is used, both in prose and poetry, to express a certain emotion by the use of exaggeration. Depending upon the number of feet in a line, a line can be called monometer (if it has one foot), dimeter (if it has two feet), trimeter, tetrameter, and so on till nonameter (if a line has nine meters in it). We provide informative and helpful articles about the newest fiction and nonfiction books on the market that you can come back to again and again when you have the urge for a new book to dig into. | T exempla, exempli gratia = "for example", abbr. Argument: The sequence of ideas or the plot of a poem that forms its conceptual structure. The first text generally cited in this category is Laurence Sterne's The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (1759). Bestiary: A medieval listing containing the names and attributes of different animals, birds, and even rocks. Aristotle in his ‘Rhetorics’ has mentioned the ways in which an orator can persuade the audience in accepting his point of view. These folk tales are ordinarily unwritten and passed down from parent to child. Due to this, his only weakness was his heels. Most epitaphs are brief records of the family, and perhaps the career, of the deceased, often with an expression of love or respect - "beloved father of ..." - but others are more ambitious. When the insert was intended only to shift the mood before returning to the main action, without a change of scene being necessary, authors could revert to a "play within a play" technique, or have some accidental guests in a ballroom perform a dance, etc. In literature, an epigraph is a phrase, quotation, or poem that is set at the beginning of a document or component. The general flow of thoughts, use of words, and form can help in perceiving it as a poem. | K The division results into two symmetrical halves, called hemististches. (Hamlet) Not every adjective is an epithet, even worn clichÃ©: an epithet is especially recognizable when its function is largely decorative, as when "cloud-gathering Zeus" is otherwise employed than in conjuring up a storm. They were famous for the use of witty and polished lyrics of bravery and courtship. Second Secretary An epitaph (from Greek ἐπιτάφιον epitaphion "a funeral oration" from ἐπί epi "at, over" and τάφος taphos "tomb") is a short text honouring a deceased person, strictly speaking that is inscribed on their tombstone or plaque, but also used figuratively. Homeric simile, also called epic simile, is a detailed comparison in In media res can also be found in the famous works like Homer’s Odyssey and Iliad, Dante’s Divine Comedy, etc. Blocking: Arrangement and movement of characters on stage, that ensures that all characters are visible to the audience, and actors are spread evenly throughout the stage and not cluttered at one place. One fine example of magic realism can be found in Gabriel Gracia Marquez’s One Hundred Years of Solitude. For example, Stephen King's The Dark Half has epigraphs taken from the fictitious novels written by the protagonist; Jasper Fforde's The Eyre Affair has quotations from supposedly future works about the action of the story. Heroic Couplet: A heroic couplet is a set of two rhyming lines of iambic pentameter. of Petrarch and the French of Ronsard and others. We shall fight in France. For example, the words "before" and "after" do not apply to objects individually â it makes no sense to say "Jim is before" or "Jim is after" â but to one thing in relation to another, as in "The wedding is before the reception" and "The reception is after the wedding". For example, the words civil war, revolution, and rebellion have the same denotation. Censorship Ordinance of 1559: A law under Queen Elizabeth which was aimed at political censorship of plays and all literary works based on religious or political themes. The exordium is one of six parts of a discourse that an orator would develop as part of the rhetorical discipline known as dispositio â the arrangement of the arguments in an oration. Should a direct opening be favoured, or should the opening be more subtle and indirect? Magic Realism: Magic realism is a term that describes such works of fiction where the author combines the everyday normal events with fantasy. An example of a flash of holistic understanding in a prepared mind was Charles Darwin's "hunch" (about natural selection) during The Voyage of the Beagle. The term attachÃ© is used for any diplomatic agent who does not fit in the standard diplomatic ranks, often because they are not (or were not traditionally) members of the sending country's diplomatic service or foreign ministry, and were therefore only "attached" to the diplomatic mission. The form of the word in contemporary English is taken from French eclogue, Offstage: An area of the stage that is not visible to the audience. 45+ Literary Devices and Terms That Everyone Should Know Whether you're a writer, reader, student, or all of the above, it's important to know how literary devices work. One who practices exegesis is called an exegete (from Greek ἐξηγητής). Its synonyms are burla or burlettina. Point of View: It is a narrative method which determines the manner in which, and the position from where, a story is told. Harry Caplan, Loeb Classical Library, 1954.). Act: A play is divided into a number of major divisions. Concepts and expressions of this sort are monadic or "one-place" concepts and expressions. Different characters and certain eveâ¦ King also uses many epigraphs in his own literature, usually to mark the beginning of another section in the novel. Dylan Thomas’ Do not Go Gentle Into that Good Night is a good example of a vilanelle. Folklore are known to have a major impact on the mindset of the audience. Realism: The term ‘realism’ in literature refers to the portrayal of human life and experiences as one sees in real life. On second reading, the reader should realize that "breast" does not carry the general androgynous connotation of "chest" but instead the specific idea of a woman's breasts, which are so attractive that a heterosexual man of any religion would kiss the Christian cross to be near. English Sonnet- as opposed to Petrarchan . where actually the writer is trying to make the audience understand that there is no difference between life and theater, and human beings are merely playing parts allotted to them, just as the actors are doing on the stage. The epigraph to Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov is John 12:24. [Return To Top] F Fable: A fable is a short story that essentially has a moral. The Red Cross is one of three symbols representing the International Red Cross. Existentialism became fashionable in the post-World War years as a way to reassert the importance of human individuality and freedom. A sonnet is made of three quatrains followed by a couplet. That Introduction, again, is faulty which the opponent can turn to his own use against you. Liturgical Drama: Liturgical drama, also known as religious drama, includes plays narrating Biblical as well as stories of the saints. This is done to keep the reader engaged. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Fin de siÃ¨cle: Fin de siecle literally means “end of the century”. Western Fiction: Western fiction became a part of American literature during the early 20th century. to develop a fully native form. Sometimes, the word would be in literal relation to one of the words and metaphorical to the other. Antagonist: A character in prose or poetry that deceives, frustrates, works against, or tries to harm the main character who is known as the protagonist. Go hence, to have more talk of these sad things. Drama, novels (fiction and non-fiction), poetry, etc., are part of what is known as literature. A foot, basically, consists of a certain number of syllables. There are also specific types of epithets, such as the kenning which appears in works such as Beowulf. Assonance: Repetition of a vowel sound in a line of poetry, as in the following example from Poeâs âThe Ravenâ: âThe silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain.â Autobiography: An authorâs account or story of his/her own life. Palindrome: A word or a sentence, that reads the same, when read forwards or backwards. et vino et sale et omnibus cachinnis. Many critics thought that Lyly overused comparisons as well as alliterations; Philip Sidney and Gabriel Harvey castigated his style. Sometimes, sounds may be elided for euphonic effect. At the lowest rung of this hierarchy, were placed the inanimate objects like rocks and stones. At a certain point in time the choirs, which had previously chanted to right of the altar or stage, and then to left of it, combined and sang in unison, or permitted the coryphaeus to sing for them all, while standing in the centre. The most commonly used ones found in English poetry include aa, bb, cc, dd, ee and abab, cdcd. A film essay is a movie that often incorporates documentary film making styles and which focuses more on the evolution of a theme or an idea. | I The protagonist most often faced a spiritual crisis and as he recovered from it, he matured and understood his role in the world. phonaesthetic devices of poetry are rhyme, assonance and alliteration. The term was often used derogatorily by editors and scholars to denote an incomplete or inferior quality literary work. Internal Rhyme: Internal rhyme is where a poem has rhyming words in the same sentence. The lines in this, have iambic tetrameter that alternate with lines of iambic trimeter. Earlier, it had been a very common practice for the poets to invoke one of the muses in the beginning of the poem, to help them with the needed skills, inspiration, situation, and knowledge, so that they can write a poem on a subject they have thought of. Its essential features had already appeared in such works as George Pettie's "A Petite Pallace of Pettie his pleasure" (1576), in sermon literature, and Latin tracts. Whether it is the consonant sound or a specific vowel group, the alliteration involves creating a repetition of similar sounds in the sentence. Obligatory Scene: It is a scene, which demands its presence, due to the plot of the play, forcing the playwright to write it. This melodramatic form is also adapted in various films, novels, television programs, etc. A female troubadour is called a trobairitz. | D Xanaduism refers to the literary study of sources that helped in the formation of fantasy and imaginative works. Interior Monologue: Interior monologue is a literary device which can be said to be a type of stream of consciousness, where the writer records the thinking process of a character in the same way in which he is thinking, filled with vagueness, and lacking a chronological order. The rhyme scheme may be similar in all the stanzas throughout the poem, or may vary. This literary genre refers to those novels which spun stories around the American Old West frontier, particularly in the late 19th century. by Thomas Wyatt in the early 16th century, his sonnets and those of his An epilogue is a final chapter at the end of a story that often serves to reveal the fates of the characters. A person or an animal who is part of the action of a literary work. This was a living representation of Jesus Christ. Dialogs help in characterization and are crucial for the plot to advance. They are used to symbolize qualities of social, religious, or political significance, and characters are often personifications of abstract ideas like charity, kindness, greed, or jealousy. Similarly, didactic poetry refers to something that is supposed to teach an ethical, moral or religious theme. After the names of the author and recipient, Pauline epistles often open with the greeting, "Grace and peace to you." It converts information of the hours of wakefulness into more permanent and enhanced memory. The term has its origin in the works, as well as life of Lord Byron whom his ex-lover Lady Caroline Lamb had characterized as being “mad, bad, and dangerous to know”. Low Comedy: Low comedy is directly opposite to the intellectual humor found in high comedy. Besides plot, character, style and setting, theme is the other main component of a work of fiction. Analogy: Using an instance somewhat similar (not the same) to the one being talked about, in order to highlight the salient features of the instance in question, through comparison of the two. Stereotype: A stereotype is a character that is so simple and ordinary in its personality that it seems to be a representation of a specific social group or type of people. 0 1 2. A distinction between the two may seem unnecessarily fastidious. DÃ©nouement: A French word, DÃ©nouement refers to a series of events that take place after the climax that concludes the plot and brings about resolution conflicts. Poems can be found in rhymed verse, free verse as well as in blank verse. a fictitious person, even though the identity of the real author is 1603, when recited, each feet lasts the same, when read forwards or backwards satiric effect enhanced. That mean “ novel of education. a post-modern genre of light music as well copyright Penlighten... Dew upon the morning grass., the audience Caesar, Shakespeare is heavily enjambed loss! Eliot 's Gerontion is a collection of all time of a particular word or sentence jokes, sexual blunders obscenity. Calvino, Isabel Allende, Jorge Luis Borge, etc theme are seizing..., quotation, or secondary significance of a literary term is derived from the plays of,. Or over a course of a line of poetry was very popular the! 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