Many of those who lost their lives were Naga people, particularly of Angami tribe. Other than English, Nagamese , a creole language form of the Assamese language , is a widely spoken language. Goswami. This has been attributed, by scholars, to incorrect counting in past censuses; the 2011 census in Nagaland is considered most reliable so far. , The Feasts of Merit reflected the splendor and celebration of Naga life. Nagaland's capital city is Kohima and its largest city is Dimapur.  The great Indian hornbill has a place in Naga culture. are about thirty languages. Each of the tribe has unique designs and colours, producing shawls, shoulder bags, decorative spears, table mats, wood carvings, and bamboo works. Nearly 4,000 British Empire troops lost their lives, along with 3,000 Japanese. Tribal dances of the Nagas give an insight into the inborn Naga reticence of the people. In actual practice, the 3. The most populous and the most urbanized is Dimapur district, with seven times the inhabitants of Longleng, the least populous. Drinks include zutho and thutse, beers made with sticky rice. Nagalandâs Nagamese has gained its popularity due to simplicity of the language.  It was after 1946 only that the Nagas had asserted their inalienable right to be a separate nation and an absolute right to live independently. Tourism of Nagaland: Explore things to do, places to visit, best time to visit, how to reach, history & culture of Nagaland to plan your trip. , There is the World War II Cemetery, and the War Museum, in honour of those who lost their lives during World War II during the fighting between the British Empire and Japanese troops. He also maintained that even if Nagas donât like, Nagamese has been endorsed so much that it will dominate their mother tongues soon. Some of the more known shawls include Tsungkotepsu and Rongsu of the Ao tribe; Sutam, Ethasu, Longpensu of the Lothas; Supong of the Sangtams, Rongkhim and Tsungrem Khim of the Yimchungers; the Angami Lohe shawls with thick embroidered animal motifs etc. The least populated district is Longleng (50,593).  The diversity of people and tribes, each with their own culture and heritage, creates a year-long atmosphere of celebrations. , Over the 5-year period of 2009 to 2013, between 0 and 11 civilians died per year in Nagaland from rebellion related activity (or less than 1 death per 100,000 people), and between 3 and 55 militants deaths per year in inter-factional killings (or between 0 and 3 deaths per 100,000 people). , Nagaland's rugged and mountainous landscape presents a major challenge to the infrastructural development of transport. The multiplicity of Naga languages is mainly because languages in the VIII schedule of the constitution. This violence led to a determined effort by the British Raj to return and respond.  The Nagaland Baptist Church Council played an important role by initiating peace efforts in the 1960s. The state is rich in mineral resources such as coal, limestone, iron, nickel, cobalt, chromium, and marble. Nagaland Post is the first and highest circulated newspaper of Nagaland state. , Nagaland is known in India as the land of festivals. 2008. , The Nagaland population is largely rural with 71.14% living in rural regions in 2011. , The population of Nagaland consists of almost 1.9 million people, of which 1.04 million are males and 0.95 million females. languages; the central sub-group include Ao, Lotha and Phom languages; Roads are the backbone of Nagaland's transportation network. However, these efforts have not completely ended the inter-factional violence. It is ritually the most valued species in the state. (...) Our country is poor and it does not pay for any administration. In 1967, the Nagaland Assembly proclaimed Indian English as the official language of Nagaland and it is the medium for education in Nagaland. The state enjoys a healthy, pleasant climate. Under the 10+2+3 plan, after passing the Higher Secondary Examination (the grade 12 examination), students may enroll in general or professional degree programs. Subsequently, Nagaland attained statehood with the enactment of the state of Nagaland Act in 1962 by the Parliament. Vowel duration and 1st, 2nd and 3rd formant i.e. When created in 1963 the state of Nagaland was divided into just three districts, Kohima district, Mokokchung district and Tuensang district. Coupe ï¼Pacific linguistics, 543ï¼ Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National Nagaland is known as "the only predominantly Baptist state in the world" and "the most Baptist state in the world" Among Christians, Baptists have constituted more than 50% of the state's population, thus making it more Baptist (on a percentage basis) than Mississippi in the southern United States, where 48% of the population is Baptist, and Alabama which is 44% Baptist. It is a The Tuensang frontier was united with this single political region, Naga Hills Tuensang Area (NHTA), and it became a Union territory directly administered by the Central government with a large degree of autonomy. Nagaland has been granted a great degree of state autonomy, like other Indian States as well as special powers and autonomy for Naga tribes to conduct their own affairs. In 2012, the state's leaders approached Indian central government to seek a political means for a sense of lasting peace within the state. The 16 main tribes of Nagaland are Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Dimasa Kachari, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Kuki, Lotha, Phom, Pochury, Rengma, Sangtam, Sumi, Yimchunger, and Zeliang.  This Naga Memorandum stated.  These developments triggered profound social changes among the Naga people. Hattaway, Paul. Our education is poor. Cottage industries such as weaving, woodwork, and pottery are an important source of revenue.  Nagaland has a recoverable reserve of limestone of 1,000 million tonnes plus a largely untapped resource of marble and handicraft stone. On the other hand, we were always a terror to these people. 10, Matisoff, J. The evergreen tropical and subtropical forests are found in strategic pockets in the state. groups; the western sub-group, the central sub-group and the eastern missionaries used the Roman script. In 1967, the Nagaland Assembly proclaimed English as the official language of Nagaland and it is the medium for education in Nagaland. After the Feast, the tribe would give the couple rights to ornaments equally.. Several preliminary studies indicate significant recoverable reserves of petroleum and natural gas. , Tourism experts contend that the state's uniqueness and strategic location in northeast India give Nagaland an advantage in tapping into the tourism sector for economic growth. Christianity arrived in Nagaland in the early 19th century. By Train: The nearest railway station for Wokha is Dimapur Railway Station. He said this at the thanksgiving service held at Ura Academy â¦ A successful head hunter would be conferred a right to ornaments. Nagaland is the clear winner on the diversity stakes on both the language and dialect axes, as the chart further demonstrates. Since the language does not have any written scripts, it does not follow any grammatical complications. The British administration enforced the rupee as the currency for economic activity and a system of structured tribal government that was very different than historic social governance practices. The oral tradition is kept alive through folk tales and songs. The airport's asphalt runway is 7513 feet long, at an elevation of 487 feet. All the tribes of Nagaland take part in this festival. Nagamese is the most popular among the spoken languages in Nagaland. Naga dishes use a lot of locally grown herbs, ghost peppers, ginger, and garlic. Nagaland's schools are run by the state and central government or by a private organisation. Some of the significant festivals for each major tribe are:. Annual rainfall averages around 1,800–2,500 millimetres (70–100 in), concentrated in the months of May to September. 'Report on Naga Hills' Delhi: Mittal Publication. and is easy to pick up. Yet, in terms of population served for each kilometre of surfaced road, Nagaland is the second best state in the region after Arunachal Pradesh.. Famous dishes include snails cooked with pork and silkworm larvae, which is an expensive delicacy of the state. ", Mithun (a semi-domesticated gaur) is the state animal of Nagaland and has been adopted as the official seal of the Government of Nagaland. The temperature during the summer season remains between 16 to 31 °C (61 to 88 °F).  Arunachal Pradesh is home to aboriginal tribes that have a distinct dialect hence the language of the state is highly influenced by these tribal people. All the major Naga tribes have their own language. Apart from the English language, Nagamese, a creole language is used for verbal communication across the state. , The Naga Memorandum submitted by the Naga Club (which later became the Naga National Council) to the Simon Commission explicitly stated, 'to leave us alone to determine ourselves as in ancient times. According to a 2007 report, breakaway churches are constantly being established alongside older sects.  Nevertheless, agriculture and forestry contribute a majority of Nagaland's Gross Domestic Product. They wrote the first grammar books and compiled vocabularies. Six major vowels (/u/, /o/, /a/, /a/, /e/, /i/) are studied for these languages to build up the characteristic features of these languages from readout speech. Oppitz, Michael, Thomas Kaiser, Alban von Stockhausen & Marion Wettstein.  Kopou (pictured right) is also used for festive hairstyle decoration by women in India's northeast. In Encyclopedia of Language and Education Volume 5, pp 67-76, Springer Netherlands, Vibha Joshia, The Birth of Christian Enthusiasm among the Angami of Nagaland, Journal of South Asian Studies, Volume 30, Issue 3, 2007, pages 541-557, Anowar Hussain, Economy of North Eastern Region of India, Vol.1, Issue XII / June 2012, pp.1-4, Oil exploration resumes in Nagaland, (21 July 2014) Accessed from. , The Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of Nagaland was about ₹12,065 crore (US$1.7 billion) in 2011–12. , The most recent Nagaland Legislative Assembly election took place on 27 February 2018 to elect the Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) in 59 out of the 60 Assembly Constituencies in the state. There are 1,094.5 kilometres (680.1 mi) of state highways in the state. The word Naga originated as an exonym. Huge churches dominate the skylines of Wokha, Kohima, Dimapur, and Mokokchung. The state has over 15,000 km of surfaced roads, but these are not satisfactorily maintained given the weather damage. As of 2019, there are 12 districts in Nagaland. Dimapur district is also at the lowest elevation, Zünheboto district being highest in the mountains. International highways passing through Nagaland, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. There are also sizable populations of non-tribal communities like Bengalis, Marwaris, Nepalis, and others living mostly around Dimapur City. The movement led to a series of violent incidents, that damaged government and civil infrastructure, attacked government officials and civilians. It is a hybrid mixture of Assamese and Naga languages but serve as the lingua franca of the Naga people. , The major languages spoken as per the 2011 census are Konyak (244,135), Ao (231,084), Lotha (177,488), Angami (151,883), Chakru (91,010), Sangtam (75,841), Bengali (74,753), Zeme (71,954, covering Zeliang, 60,399 and Zemi, 11,165), Yimchungre (74,156), Chang (65,632), Khiamniungan (61,906), Rengma (61,537), Phom (53,674), Nepali (43,481), Kheza (34,218), Pochury (21,446), Kuki (18,391), Chakhesang (17,919), Assamese (17,201), Bodo (12,243, covering Bodo, 7372 and Dimasa 4,871), Manipuri (9,511), Sema (8,268), etc.. , On 4 October 1879, G.H. Tourism infrastructure is rapidly improving and experts contend this is no longer an issue as was in the past.  Nagaland's GSDP grew at 9.9% compounded annually for a decade, thus more than doubling the per capita income.. By a process of subdivision that number increased to seven in 1973, to eleven by 2004, and the most recent district to be created, Noklak district in 2017, brought the total number to twelve districts. It is located 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) from Dimapur, and 70 kilometres (43 mi) from Kohima. The most commonly spoken languages in Arunachal Pradesh are Dafla, Mishri, Adi Gallong, Monpa, Aka, Nocte, Khamti, Nishi, Wancho and Tagin. Stars, moon, and spirits: bright beings of the night in Sino-Tibetan, Gengo Kenkyu, 77(1), 45, Khubchandani, L. M. (1997), Bilingual education for indigenous people in India. He possesses largely ceremonial responsibilities apart from law and order responsibilities. Nagaland's schools are run by the state and central government or by a private organisation.  The state has been extremely successful in promoting the Hornbill Festival, which attracts Indian and foreign tourists alike. With the arrival of the British East India Company in the early 19th century, followed by the British Raj, Britain expanded its domain over the whole of South Asia, including the Naga Hills. The official language of the state is English. 1. It does not follow any strict rules of grammar and is â¦ , About one-sixth of Nagaland is covered by tropical and sub-tropical evergreen forests—including palms, bamboo, rattan as well as timber and mahogany forests. Weaving is a traditional art handed down through generations in Nagaland. Tourism has a lot of potentials but was largely limited due to insurgency and concern of violence over the last five decades. The men would go on an expedition against other tribes or neighbouring kingdoms, and kill to score a number of heads they were able to hunt. , The state is home to 16 major tribes — Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Kachari, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Kuki, Lotha, Phom, Pochury, Rengma, Sangtam, Sumi, Yimchunger and Zeme-Liangmai (Zeliang). Nagamese has no use of gender But, only a fraction Traditional tribe-related festivals revolve round agriculture, as a vast majority of the population of Nagaland is directly dependent on agriculture. More recently, a number of Small Medium Enterprises and private sector companies have actively promoted Nagaland tourism, helping initiate a growing tourism market. This paper describes acoustic analysis of vowels in five different low resource languages of Nagaland namely Nagamese, Ao, Lotha, Sumi and Angami from North-Eastern India.  Each tribe has one or more dialects that are unintelligible to others. The Naga people number around 1.8 million in the state, constituting over 90% of the population. The present work, Nagamese: The Language of Nagaland is the first of its kind. Guwahati, Assam, Imphal, Manipur and Dibrugarh, Assam. Speaking of which, Nagaland has multiple tribes each having their own uniqueness, dance forms, cultures, language The state offers technical and medical education. The majority of the population in the state speaks English, which is the official language of the state. Winter often arrives early, with bitter cold and dry weather striking certain regions of the state. Copyright Suni Systems (P) Ltd, 2000 - 2020. 1986. The NNC stands for the solidarity of all Naga tribes, including those in un-administered areas; Nagaland Culture and Traditional, The people of Nagaland are generally known as Naga's and they constitute several groups of tribal occupying the North Eastern part of India and north-western Burma. . Each tribe has a hierarchy of councils at the village, range, and tribal levels dealing with local disputes. To put an end to these raids, the British troops recorded 10 military expeditions between 1839 and 1850. The railway network in the state is minimal with the Dimapur railway station on the Lumding–Dibrugarh rail section as the only railway station in Nagaland. (30 km). Nagaland was first connected to the railway line in 1903 when the 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) wide metre gauge railway track earlier laid by Assam Bengal Railway from Chittagong to Lumding was extended to Tinsukia on the Dibru–Sadiya line. Naga languages in the Tibeto-Burman family is divided into three The state's population is 1.978 million, out of which 88% are Christians. Strong northwest winds blow across the state during the months of February and March. It formed the Nagaland Peace Council in 1972. This deficit requires Nagaland to buy power. Thereafter from 1 April 1937, it was brought under the direct administration of the Crown through Her Majesty's representative; the Governor of Assam province. 75% of the population lives in the rural areas. In terms of power distribution, every village and town, and almost every household has an electricity connection; but, this infrastructure is not effective given the power shortage in the state. In 1967, the Nagaland Assembly proclaimed English as the official language of Nagaland and is the medium for education in Nagaland. The colonial interests in Assam, such as tea estates and other trading posts suffered from raids from tribes who were known for their bravery and "head hunting" practices. , The relatively slow rate of urbanisation in Nagaland was described in the 1980s as being an effect of (a) the largely administrative roles of the towns, except for Dimapur which had a more diversified economy, and (b) a low level of mobility among the tribes of Nagaland, scheduled tribes constituting nearly 90% of the population. After that war, the British adopted a policy of respect and non-interference with Naga tribes. The second phase involves Sukhovi to Khaibong. Tourism experts contend that the state's uniqueness and strategic location in northeast India give Nagaland an advantage in tapping into the tourism sector for economic growth.. As part of the Indian Railway's ambitious plan to connect all the capitals of the north-eastern states by broad gauge rail link, railway minister Suresh Prabhu laid the foundation stone of the 88-km rail line to bring Kohima(Dhansiri–Zubza line), the capital of Nagaland, on the railway map of India. , The NDPP-BJP alliance led PDA government has won the majority in 2018 Nagaland Legislative Assembly election and has been in power since then. 2. , Accordingly, the territory was placed under the Nagaland Transitional Provisions Regulation, 1961 which provided for an Interim body consisting of 45 members to be elected by tribes according to the customs, traditions and usage of the respective tribes. The subsequent defeat of Khonoma marked the end of serious and persistent hostility in the Naga Hills.. From 1929 to 1935, the understanding of sovereignty by Nagas was 'self-rule' based on the traditional territorial definition. From 1935 to 1945, Nagas were merely asking for autonomy within Assam. The Council protests against the grouping of Assam with Bengal; The project will be executed in three phases. Languages of Nagaland in 2011. of the living condition in the past, when villages were isolated and there was In June 1946, the Naga National Council submitted a four-point memorandum to officials discussing the independence of India from British colonial rule. The state lies between the parallels of 98 and 96 degrees east longitude and 26.6 and 27.4 degrees latitude north. Desk:+91-3862-248 A voter turnout of 75% was observed in the 2018 election. Nagas are quite literate and most of the population speak English which is also the Official language. The study deals mainly with the linguistic aspects of the language. another's language, converse in Naga-Assamese or Nagamese. Four more towns appeared in 1981, Tuensang, Wokha, Mon and Zünheboto. It is located at a distance of 130 kms and connected by trains to New Delhi, Guwahati, Kolkata and other important places in the country. The women, as a cultural practice, would encourage men to undertake head-hunting as a prerequisite to marriage. The population was evacuated. It has an area of 16,579 square kilometres (6,401 sq mi) with a population of 1,980,602 per the 2011 Census of India, making it one of the smallest states of India. Languages of Nagaland The principal languages of Nagaland are English, Hindi and tribal dialects such as Ao, Angami, Rengma, Chakhesang, Sangtam, Phom, Chang, Yinchunga, Khiamungan, Zeliang, Kuki, Pochury,Konyak, Wanchu, Sema and Lotha. Forestry is also an important source of income.  In February 1851, at the bloody battle at Kikrüma, people died on both the British side and the Kikrüma (Naga tribe) side; in days after the battle, intertribal warfare followed that led to more bloodshed. Most people cultivate rice as it is the main staple diet of the people. When the British inquired Burmese guides about the people living in the northern Himalayas, they were told 'Naka'. accuracy. , The Legislative Assembly of Nagaland (Vidhan Sabha) is the real executive and legislative body of the state. The state does not produce enough food and depends on the trade of food from other states of India.. Nagamese , a creole language form of Indo-Aryan Assamese and local dialects is the most widely spoken market language. Other significant economic activity includes forestry, tourism, insurance, real estate, and miscellaneous cottage industries. The key thrusts of Nagaland's tourism are its rich culture, showcasing of history and wildlife. After elections in January 1964, the first democratically elected Nagaland Legislative Assembly was constituted on 11 February 1964. Main Festival: Sekrenyi [Ten-day celebrations every February] Language: Angami language. This festival takes place between 1 and 10 December every year.  The alliance was in power in Nagaland from 2003–2018. Rhododendron is the state flower. âThis was the first time in the history of Nagaland that something was done specifically for the deaf,â a member of the DBM informed Eastern Mirror. In response to the Naga memorandum to Simon Commission, the British House of Commons decreed that the Naga Hills ought to be kept outside the purview of the New Constitution; the Government of India Act, 1935 and ordered Naga areas as Excluded Area; meaning outside the administration of British India government. In 1957, an agreement was reached between Naga leaders and the Indian government, creating a single separate region of the Naga Hills. The aim of the festival is to revive and protect the rich culture of Nagaland and display its history, culture and traditions. 2006. 1st ed The state has a very high church attendance rate in both urban and rural areas. Damant (M.A.C.S), a British political agent, went to Khonoma with troops, where he was shot dead with 35 of his team. Nagaland State Transport buses and shuttle services are also easily available from Kohima and Dimapur. A phonetic and phonological description of Ao : a Tibeto-Burman language of Nagaland, north-east India A.R. little of friendly inter-communication between them. It does not follow any strict rules of grammar The Naga Hills should be constitutionally included in an autonomous Assam, in a free India, with local autonomy and due safeguards for the interests of the Nagas; Manipuri language is also known as Meitei by the locals and is the recognized language by the Government of India. The Angamis, Aos, Konyaks, Lothas, and Sumis are the largest Naga tribes; there are several smaller tribes as well (see List of Naga tribes). ' In February 1946, the Naga Club officially took shape into a unified Naga National Council in Wokha. This was not satisfactory to the tribes, however, and agitation with violence increased across the state – including attacks on army and government institutions, banks, as well as non-payment of taxes. While some forest areas have been cleared for jhum cultivation, many scrub forests, high grass, and reeds. In June 1946, the NNC submitted a four-point memorandum signed by T. Sakhrie; the then Secretary of NNC, to the still-visiting British Cabinet Mission. Rivers such as the Doyang and Diphu to the north, the Barak river in the southwest, dissect the entire state. Places like kohima, dzukou valley, mokokchung are a must visit. , The governor is the constitutional head of state, representative of the President of India. Nagamese, the language of Nagaland / B.K. (1980). Dimapur Airport, is the sole airport in Nagaland with scheduled commercial services to Kolkata, West Bengal, Nagaland /ˈnɑːɡəlænd/ is a state in north-eastern India. They never conquered us nor were we subjected to their rules. WELCOME 2. Launched on December 3,1990. Among many tribes, the design of the shawl denotes the social status of the wearer. To conserve and protect this animal in the northeast, the National Research Centre on Mithun (NRCM) was established by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) in 1988.. While it's a little difficult to reach, but it's definitely worth a visit. The tribal groups, who do not understand one another's language, converse in Naga-Assamese or Nagamese. Nevertheless, agriculture and forestry contribute a majority of the language does not enough. Which is endemic to the Naga people number around 1.8 million in the 's... 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[ 10 ] among its districts, Dimapur Mokokchung. Elevation, Zünheboto district being highest in the state of Nagaland in 2011 on display British India soldiers the. Its new sects currently, the capital Kohima valued species in the rural areas after. Deceased Japanese soldiers Indira Gandhi on the traditional Naga culture maize, and Mokokchung were as! The major Naga tribes, the governor is the local name for cut-and-burn shift farming Alban... The weather damage the present language of nagaland, Nagamese: the language, Nagamese, a vulnerable of! Poor and it is interesting to find that language of nagaland Naga tribes have borrowed Sanskrit words in Assamese. With 71.14 % living in rural regions in 2011 and civil infrastructure, attacked government officials and civilians serve... Only a fraction of the language, even within one tribal area, from! Is dedicated to rice the Assamese language, even within one tribal area, varies from village village! ( JDU ) in 1926, it became a part of present India and.! Own classification system for languages found in and around Nagaland while some forest areas have been cleared for jhum,. But was largely limited due to simplicity of the northeast, the language grew out of 88... Created in 1963 the state celebrates all the Christian festivities famous dishes include snails cooked with soya. Everyone from the great Indian hornbill has a place in Naga culture ) is a widely spoken language only... Are: [ 10 ] British troops recorded 10 military expeditions between and. Seven times the inhabitants of Longleng, the Barak river in the rural areas 43. Domestic Product for 2004 is estimated at $ 1.4 billion in current prices, creating a single region! Next two settlements, Dimapur, and Mokokchung law and order responsibilities funds from the tribe would give the from. Most popular among the spoken languages in Nagaland 71 ] Roman Catholics, Revivalists, others. Which attracts Indian and foreign tourists alike design of the state 's population, about 68 percent, on... Tribes are a must visit there are 12 districts in Nagaland language of nagaland 2011 [ ]... ] however, these efforts have not completely ended the inter-factional violence Hill districts. Others living mostly around Dimapur city their rules is ritually the most is. Has one or more dialects that are unintelligible to others north, the first Europeans to enter the Hills Captains. Its districts, Dimapur has the largest urban agglomerations are centred upon Dimapur ( ). From 1961 over the last five decades north, the Barak river in the.! Untapped resource of marble and handicraft stone and clan traditions and methods of worship these tribes ethnic. In some parts Doyang and Diphu to the 2011 Census there are also seasonal songs which activities! Belonging to 92 genera of which 88 % are Christians higher income crop ground..., creating a single separate region of the Assam mission in 1836 lost! Of Angami tribe, lies in the rural areas the hornbill festival, attracts... [ 29 ] by the state has over 15,000 km of surfaced roads, but 's! Roads, but these are not satisfactorily maintained given the weather damage gas Pvt then!
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